A practical approach to diagnose and treat rickets

Aditi Jaiman 1, Lokesh Tiwari 2, Jatin Prakash 3, Ashish Jaiman 4 *
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1 SK Nursing Home and Hospital, Tikonia, G.B. Pant Marg, Haldwani, Uttarakhand, India
2 Department Paediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, India
3 Vardhman Mahavir Medical College & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
4 Central Institute of Orthopaedics, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
* Corresponding Author
J CLIN MED KAZ, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp. 7-13. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/9658
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ABSTRACT

Rickets is a disease of growing bone, before fusion of epiphyses. There is defective mineralization of cartilage matrix in the zone of provisional calcification caused either by nutritional vitamin D deficiency and/or low calcium intake or by non-nutritional causes, like hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. The diagnosis is made on the basis of history, physical examination, and biochemical testing, and is confirmed by radiographs. Treatment consists of vitamin D supplementation as Stoss therapy or daily or weekly oral regimens, all with equal efficacy and safety, combined with calcium supplements. For renal rickets, the active form of Vit D, 1,25(OH)2 also called Calcitriol is used, treatment is tailored to another type of renal rickets. 
Routine supplementation starting from the newborn period is being increasingly endorsed by various international organizations. Adequate sunlight exposure, food fortification, and routine supplementation are the currently available options for tackling this nutritional deficiency. In this review article, we discuss the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of rickets in detail.

CITATION

Jaiman A, Tiwari L, Prakash J, Jaiman A. A practical approach to diagnose and treat rickets. J CLIN MED KAZ. 2021;18(1):7-13. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/9658

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