Actual issues of secondary prevention of liver cancer in Kazakhstan

Niyaz Malayev 1 2, Samat Saparbayev 3, Saule Kubekova 4 * , Nurlan Zhampeissov 5
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1 Department of Oncology, Marat Ospanov West Kazakhstan Medical University, Aktobe, Kazakhstan
2 Department of General and Thoracic Surgery, National Scientific Medical Center, Astana, Kazakhstan
3 Department of Surgery, Astana Medical University, Astana, Kazakhstan
4 Department of Cardiology, Astana Medical University, Astana, Kazakhstan
5 Department of Radiation Diagnostics and Ultrasound Imaging, National Scientific Medical Center, Astana, Kazakhstan
* Corresponding Author
J CLIN MED KAZ, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp. 66-72.
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Liver cancer is characterized by high mortality and low survival rates in most countries of the world. According to the WHO data, more than 1.3 million people with liver cancer die annually in the world and according to the data of the 9th volume of "Cancer on five continents" - the highest standardized incidence rates are in Korea - 44.9 per 100 thousand population as well as in Thailand, Japan, China. Low rates were in Algeria, India, Belgium and the Netherlands. In Russia 61.5% of patients die of liver cancer progression in the first year after diagnosis [1,2].
Information on the global burden of cancer in 2018 showed that the specific weight of liver cancer in the structure of malignant neoplasms (MN) is 8.2%, and in 2020 - 8.3% [3].  
The worldwide peculiarity of liver cancer is its late diagnosis. Several evidence-based treatment options for liver cancer are currently available: liver transplantation for hepatocellular liver cancer (HCC) (according to the Milan criteria), radiofrequency ablation as a radical treatment option (RFA), chemoembolization for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (TACE), and the administration of Sorafenib as systemic therapy [4].
Current approaches for the treatment of early-stage primary liver cancer are represented by hepatic RFA, and the efficacy of this approach depends on the subjective attentiveness and visual acuity of the clinician. The latest technique used in liver RFA is the hyperspectral imaging which utilize objective assessment [2].
Ultrasound is usually used to detect liver lesions, but the detection rate is low for many reasons, such as clinician skills and technical capabilities. Modern approaches of diagnostic capabilities, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound integrated imaging (CEUS) and comprehensive ultrasound imaging - contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) or contrast-enhanced MRI (CEMRI) for visualization of focal liver lesions (FLL) - increase the confidence of the interventional physician so it should be recommended for use as a routine procedure [5-6].
The ratio of morbidity and mortality in many countries reaches 91.6%, which represents the third most important cause of cancer deaths [7-9].


Malayev N, Saparbayev S, Kubekova S, Zhampeissov N. Actual issues of secondary prevention of liver cancer in Kazakhstan. J CLIN MED KAZ. 2023;20(6):66-72.


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