Anxiety, depression, and other related factors in Turkish pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic's first wave: A cross-sectional and web-based study

Filiz Aslantekin-Özcoban 1, Sibel Peksoy-Kaya 2 *
More Detail
1 Midwifery Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Balikesir University, Balikesir, Turkey
2 Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Turkey
* Corresponding Author
J CLIN MED KAZ, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp. 45-54. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/12120
OPEN ACCESS
Download Full Text (PDF)

ABSTRACT

Aim: This research aims to determine attitudes, behaviors, anxiety and depression levels of pregnant women regarding the prevention measures from the COVID-19 pandemic.
Material and methods: The cross-sectional study population consists of pregnant women (N=1008) in Turkey. Data were collected with Information Form, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
Results: Anxiety score was 8 and above in 63.6% of the pregnant women while that of depression was 8 and above in 52.1% of them. There was an increase in risk of anxiety in pregnant women regarding the items about family and loved ones being infected by COVID-19 2.36 times, and about the baby being infected and lost 2.61 times. This rate increased 1.60 times in those who could not have screening tests due to pandemic, and 1.40 in those whose frequency of attending antenatal controls decreased. Risk of depression, on the other side, increased 1.59 times in those who were anxious about not receiving any companion support at birth, 1.65 times in those who couldn’t have screening tests due to the pandemic, 1.38 times in those who didn’t plan the place to give birth and didn’t learn its conditions, and 1.55 times whose frequency of attending antenatal controls decreased.
Conclusion: It has been determined that psychosocial support services and antenatal care may be regarded as fundamental fields of intervention.

CITATION

Aslantekin-Özcoban F, Peksoy-Kaya S. Anxiety, depression, and other related factors in Turkish pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic's first wave: A cross-sectional and web-based study. J CLIN MED KAZ. 2022;19(3):45-54. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/12120

REFERENCES

  • Lebel C, MacKinnon A, Bagshawe M, Tomfohr-Madsen L, Giesbrecht G. Elevated depression and anxiety symptoms among pregnant individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Affect Disord. 2020;277:5–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.07.126
  • Pfefferbaum B, North CS. Mental health and the Covid-19 Pandemic. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(6):510–512. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmp2008017
  • Schwartz DA, Graham AL. Potential maternal and infant outcomes from coronavirus 2019-NCOV (SARS-CoV-2) infecting pregnant women: Lessons from SARS, MERS, and other human coronavirus infections. Viruses. 2020;12(2):194. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12020194
  • Kourtis AP, Read JS, Jamieson DJ. Pregnancy and infection. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(23):2211–2218. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1213566
  • Wu Y, Zhang C, Liu H, Duan C, Li C, Fan J, et al. Perinatal depressive and anxiety symptoms of pregnant women during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in China. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020;223(2):240.e1–240.e9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.05.009
  • Saccone G, Florio A, Aiello F, Venturella R, De Angelis MC, Locci M, et al. Psychological impact of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020;223(2):293-295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.05.003
  • Gavin NI, Gaynes BN, Lohr KN, Meltzer-Brody S, Gartlehner G, Swinson T. Perinatal depression: A systematic review of prevalence and incidence. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106(5):1071–1083. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.AOG.0000183597.31630.db
  • Vesga-López O, Blanco C, Keyes K, Olfson M, Grant BF, Hasin DS. Psychiatric disorders in pregnant and postpartum women in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65(7):805–815. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.65.7.805
  • Giardinelli L, Innocenti A, Benni L, Stefanini MC, Lino G, Lunardi C, et al. Depression and anxiety in perinatal period: prevalence and risk factors in an Italian sample. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2012;15(1):21-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-011-0249-8
  • Tomfohr-Madsen LM, Racine N, Giesbrecht GF, Lebel C, Madigan S. Depression and anxiety in pregnancy during COVID-19: A rapid review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res. 2021;300:113912. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PSYCHRES.2021.113912
  • Corbett GA, Milne SJ, Hehir MP, Lindow SW, O'connell MP. Health anxiety and behavioural changes of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2020;249:96-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.04.022
  • Liu X, Chen M, Wang Y, Sun L, Zhang J, Shi Y, et al. Prenatal anxiety and obstetric decisions among pregnant women in Wuhan and Chongqing during the COVID-19 outbreak: a cross-sectional study. BJOG. 2020;127(10):1229-1240. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.16381
  • Li N, Han L, Peng M, Lv Y, Ouyang Y, Liu K, et al. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia: A Case-Control Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71(16):2035-2041. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa352
  • Luo Y, Yin K. Management of pregnant women infected with COVID-19. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20:513–514. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2001468
  • J Qiao J. What are the risks of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women? The Lancet. 2020;395(10226):760–762. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30365-2
  • Turkish Statistical Institute, Birth statistics, 2020. Turkish Statistical Institute, 2021. https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Dogum-Istatistikleri-2020-37229 (accessed Jun 30, 2021).
  • Dean A, Sullivan K, Soe M. OpenEpi. OpenEpi: Open Source Epidemiologic Statistics for Public Health Version, 2021. https://www.openepi.com/Menu/OE_Menu.htm (accessed Apr 15, 2021).
  • Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1983;67(6):361–370. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1983.tb09716.x
  • Aydemir Ö, Güvenir T, Kuey L, Kültür S. Validity and reliability of Turkish version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Turkish J Psychiatry. 1997;8:280-287. http://www.turkpsikiyatri.com/en/default.aspx?modul=summary&id=191
  • Madigan S, Oatley H, Racine N, Fearon RMP, Schumacher L, Akbari E, et al. A Meta-analysis of maternal prenatal depression and anxiety on child socioemotional development. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018;57(9):645-657.e8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2018.06.012
  • Ng J, Sham A, Tang PL, Fung S. SARS: pregnant women’s fears and perceptions. Br J Midwifery. 2004;12(11):698–702. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjom.2004.12.11.16710
  • van de Loo K, Vlenterie R, Nikkels SJ, Merkus P, Roukema J, Verhaak CM, et al. Depression and anxiety during pregnancy: The influence of maternal characteristics. Birth (Berkeley, Calif.). 2018;45(4):478–489. https://doi.org/10.1111/birt.12343
  • Dikmen-Yildiz P, Ayers S, Phillips L. Depression, anxiety, PTSD and comorbidity in perinatal women in Turkey: A longitudinal population-based study. Midwifery. 2017;55:29–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2017.09.001
  • Arslan B, Arslan A, Kara S, Öngel K, Mungan MT. Risk factors for pregnancy anxiety and depression: Assessment in 452 cases (in Turkish). J Tepecik Educ Res Hosp. 2011;21(2):79–84. https://doi.org/10.5222/terh.2011.45398
  • Yılmaz EB, Şahin E. Factors associated with prenatal distress levels of pregnant women. J Psychiatr Nurs. 2019;10(3):197–203. https://doi.org/10.14744/phd.2019.17363
  • Durankuş F, Aksu E. Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety and depressive symptoms in pregnant women: a preliminary study. J Matern Neonatal Med. 2020;18:1–7. https://doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2020.1763946
  • Guler O, Hatirnaz S. Comparison of the levels of antenatal anxiety in pregnant women admitted for delivery before and after COVID-19 outbreak in Turkey. Perinat J. 2020;28(2):108–112. https://doi.org/10.2399/prn.20.0282014
  • Rocca-Ihenacho L, Alonso C. Where do women birth during a pandemic? Changing perspectives on Safe Motherhood during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Glob Heal Sci. 2020;2(1):e4. https://doi.org/10.35500/jghs.2020.2.e4
  • Brooks SK, Weston D, Greenberg N. Psychological impact of infectious disease outbreaks on pregnant women: rapid evidence review. Public Health. 2020;189:26–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2020.09.006
  • Huet F, Prieur C, Schurtz G, Gerbaud E, Manzo-Silberman S, Vanzetto G, et al. One train may hide another: Acute cardiovascular diseases could be neglected because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2020;113(5):303–307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2020.04.002
  • United Nations Population Fund, UNFPA Turkey | COVID-19: A Gender Lens. UNFPA, 2020. https://turkey.unfpa.org/en/publications/covid-19-gender-lens-1 (accessed Jun 30, 2021).
  • Peahl AF, Novara A, Heisler M, Dalton VK, Moniz MH, Smith RD. Patient preferences for prenatal and postpartum care delivery: A survey of postpartum women. Obstet Gynecol. 2020;135(5):1038–1046. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003731
  • Nanjundaswamy MH, Shiva L, Desai G, Ganjekar S, Kishore T, Ram U, et al. COVID-19-related anxiety and concerns expressed by pregnant and postpartum women—a survey among obstetricians. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2020;23(6):787–790. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-020-01060-w
  • Çölgeçen Y, Çölgeçen H. Evaluation of anxiety levels arising from Covid-19 Pandemic: The case of Turkey (in Turkish). J Turkish Stud. 2020;15(4):261–275. https://doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.44399