Comprehensive pharmacoepidemiological and clinical-economic analysis of antibacterial drugs consumed during the pandemic at the hospital level in Aktobe, Kazakhstan

Aigerim A. Balapasheva 1 * , Aigul Z. Mussina 1, Gaziza A. Smagulova 1, Liliya E. Ziganshina 2 3 4
More Detail
1 Department of Pharmacology and Clinical pharmacology, West Kazakhstan Marat Ospanov Medical University, Aktobe, Kazakhstan
2 Department of Epidemiology, Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education, Moscow, Russia
3 Department of General and Clinical Pharmacology, Рeoples’ Friendship University of Russia named after Patrice Lumumba (RUDN University named after Patrice Lumumba), Moscow, Russia
4 Department of Pharmacology, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russia
* Corresponding Author
J CLIN MED KAZ, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp. 55-58. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/14495
OPEN ACCESS 165 Views 78 Downloads
Download Full Text (PDF)
Author Contributions: Conceptualization, A.B. and A.M.; methodology, A.B., A.M., G.S. and L.Z.; validation, A.B. and G.S.; formal analysis, A.B., A.M., G.S. and L.Z.; investigation, A.B.; resources, A.B. and A.M.; data curation, A.B.; writing – original draft preparation, A.B. and L.Z.; writing – review and editing, A.B. and A.M.; visualization, A.B.; supervision, G.S.; project administration, A.B.; funding acquisition, A.B., A.M., G.S. and L.Z. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

ABSTRACT

Aim: The study aimed to analyze the frequency and structure of antibacterial drug consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic at a dispensary hospital in Aktobe, Kazakhstan. It sought to identify the most frequently used and most costly antibacterial drugs, assessing their economic impact and usage patterns.
Methods: This descriptive, retrospective clinical, economic, and pharmacoepidemiological study was conducted using data from the dispensary hospital's pharmacy and patient records between March 13, 2020, and December 31, 2020. The ABC/VEN analysis and ATC/DDD methodology were applied to evaluate the consumption of antibacterial drugs. Antibiotics were classified according to WHO AWARe criteria.
Results: The study found that 27 different antibacterial drugs were used, representing 2.2% of all medications. The ABC/VEN analysis revealed that the majority of the budget was spent on a few high-cost drugs. Ceftriaxone was the most commonly used antibiotic, with a significant financial impact. According to the WHO AWaRe classification, most antibiotics fell into the Access and Watch categories.
Conclusion: The study highlights a high rate of antibacterial drug usage, with significant financial implications for the hospital. The predominance of certain high-cost antibiotics, like ceftriaxone, indicates a need for more rational and cost-effective use of these medications. The findings call for improved adherence to clinical guidelines, enhanced education for medical professionals, and optimized antibiotic utilization to prevent resistance development and ensure better patient outcomes, especially in pandemic situations.

CITATION

Balapasheva AA, Mussina AZ, Smagulova GA, Ziganshina LE. Comprehensive pharmacoepidemiological and clinical-economic analysis of antibacterial drugs consumed during the pandemic at the hospital level in Aktobe, Kazakhstan. J CLIN MED KAZ. 2024;21(2):55-8. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/14495

REFERENCES

  • Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. New England journal of medicine. 2020; 382(18): 1708-1720. https://doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2002032
  • Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. The lancet. 2020; 395(10229): 1054-1062. https://doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3
  • Chen T, Wu DI, Chen H, Yan W, Yang D, Chen G, et al. Clinical characteristics of 113 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: retrospective study. Bmj. 2020; 368. https://doi:10.1136/bmj.m1091
  • Rawson TM, Moore LS, Zhu N, Ranganathan N, Skolimowska K, Gilchrist M, et al. Bacterial and fungal coinfection in individuals with coronavirus: a rapid review to support COVID-19 antimicrobial prescribing. Clinical infectious diseases, 2020; 71(9): 2459-2468. https://doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa530
  • Iskakova N, Khismetova Z, Suleymenova D, Kozhekenova Z, Khamidullina Z, Samarova U, et al. Factors Influencing Antibiotic Consumption in Adult Population of Kazakhstan. Antibiotics. 2023; 12(3): 560. https://doi:10.3390/antibiotics12030560.
  • Ustojchivost' k antibiotikam Vsemirnoj organizacii zdravoohranenija. [(po sostojaniju na 8 nojabrja 2023 g.). https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antibiotic-resistance
  • Zhussupova G, Zhaldybayeva S, Utepova D. Improving the use of medicines in healthcare organizations to solve the problem of irrational use of medicines in the Republic of Kazakhstan. J. Health Dev. 2020; 36: 84-100. https://doi:10.32921/2225-9929-2020-36-84-100
  • Hussein RR, Shaman MB, Shaaban AH, Fahmy AM, Sofy MR, Lattyak EA, et al. Antibiotic consumption in hospitals during COVID-19 pandemic: a comparative study. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. 2022; 16(11): 1679-1686. https://doi:10.3855/jidc.17148.
  • Ziganshina LE, Nijazov RR, Polubenceva EI, Sajtkulov KI. Metodicheskie rekomendacii po provedeniju ABC-, VEN- i chastotnogo analiza potreblenija otdel'nymi kategorijami grazhdan lekarstvennyh sredstv, pri pomoshhi informacionnyh sistem. 2007; 126.
  • WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology. ATC/DDD Index 2023. URL: https://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/ (accessed 11/28/2023)
  • Vsemirnaja organizacija zdravoohranenija. Klassifikacionnaja baza dannyh antibiotikov VOZ AWaRe 2019 g. dlja ocenki i monitoringa primenenija, 2019 g. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHOEMPIAU2019.11 (accessed 06/12/2023).
  • Langford BJ, So M, Raybardhan S, Leung V, Soucy JPR, Westwood D. Antibiotic prescribing in patients with COVID-19: rapid review and meta-analysis. Clinical microbiology and infection. 2021; 27(4): 520-531.
  • Gazezova S, Nabirova D, Detmar A, Smagul M, Kasabekova L, Zikriyarova S, et al. Therapies for people hospitalized with COVID-19 and alignment with national clinical guidelines in a large hospital, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 2020–2021. Frontiers in Medicine. 2023; 10. https://doi:10.3389/fmed.2023.1248959.
  • Daria S, Islam MR. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics for COVID-19 treatment in South Asian countries is a threat for future pandemics due to antibiotic resistance. Clinical Pathology. 2022; 15: 16-17.
  • Ul Mustafa Z, Salman M, Aldeyab M, Kow CS, Hasan SS. Antimicrobial consumption among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Pakistan. SN comprehensive clinical medicine. 2021; 3(8): 1691-1695. https://doi:10.1007/s42399-021-00966-5.
  • Al-Azzam S, Mhaidat NM, Banat HA, Alfaour M, Ahmad DS. Muller A. An assessment of the impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on national antimicrobial consumption in Jordan. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(6): 690. https://doi:10.3390/antibiotics10060690.
  • Zhusupova G, Zhaldybaeva S, Utepova D. Sovershenstvovanie ispol'zovanija lekarstvennyh sredstv v organizacijah zdravoohranenija dlja reshenija problemy neracional'nogo ispol'zovanija lekarstvennyh sredstv v Respublike Kazahstan. Dzh. Zdorov'e Dev. 2020; 36: 84–100. . https://doi:10.32921/2225-9929-2020-36-84-100.