Comprehensive pharmacoepidemiological and clinical-economic analysis of antibacterial drugs consumed during the pandemic at the hospital level in Aktobe, Kazakhstan

Aigerim A. Balapasheva 1 * , Aigul Z. Mussina 1, Gaziza A. Smagulova 1, Liliya E. Ziganshina 2 3 4
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1 Department of Pharmacology and Clinical pharmacology, West Kazakhstan Marat Ospanov Medical University, Aktobe, Kazakhstan
2 Department of Epidemiology, Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education, Moscow, Russia
3 Department of General and Clinical Pharmacology, Рeoples’ Friendship University of Russia named after Patrice Lumumba (RUDN University named after Patrice Lumumba), Moscow, Russia
4 Department of Pharmacology, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russia
* Corresponding Author
J CLIN MED KAZ, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp. 55-58.
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Author Contributions: Conceptualization, A.B. and A.M.; methodology, A.B., A.M., G.S. and L.Z.; validation, A.B. and G.S.; formal analysis, A.B., A.M., G.S. and L.Z.; investigation, A.B.; resources, A.B. and A.M.; data curation, A.B.; writing – original draft preparation, A.B. and L.Z.; writing – review and editing, A.B. and A.M.; visualization, A.B.; supervision, G.S.; project administration, A.B.; funding acquisition, A.B., A.M., G.S. and L.Z. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


Aim: The study aimed to analyze the frequency and structure of antibacterial drug consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic at a dispensary hospital in Aktobe, Kazakhstan. It sought to identify the most frequently used and most costly antibacterial drugs, assessing their economic impact and usage patterns.
Methods: This descriptive, retrospective clinical, economic, and pharmacoepidemiological study was conducted using data from the dispensary hospital's pharmacy and patient records between March 13, 2020, and December 31, 2020. The ABC/VEN analysis and ATC/DDD methodology were applied to evaluate the consumption of antibacterial drugs. Antibiotics were classified according to WHO AWARe criteria.
Results: The study found that 27 different antibacterial drugs were used, representing 2.2% of all medications. The ABC/VEN analysis revealed that the majority of the budget was spent on a few high-cost drugs. Ceftriaxone was the most commonly used antibiotic, with a significant financial impact. According to the WHO AWaRe classification, most antibiotics fell into the Access and Watch categories.
Conclusion: The study highlights a high rate of antibacterial drug usage, with significant financial implications for the hospital. The predominance of certain high-cost antibiotics, like ceftriaxone, indicates a need for more rational and cost-effective use of these medications. The findings call for improved adherence to clinical guidelines, enhanced education for medical professionals, and optimized antibiotic utilization to prevent resistance development and ensure better patient outcomes, especially in pandemic situations.


Balapasheva AA, Mussina AZ, Smagulova GA, Ziganshina LE. Comprehensive pharmacoepidemiological and clinical-economic analysis of antibacterial drugs consumed during the pandemic at the hospital level in Aktobe, Kazakhstan. J CLIN MED KAZ. 2024;21(2):55-8.


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