COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus: Clinical and laboratory features in hospitalized patients

Mayra Ashirova 1 * , Gulzhan Abuova 1 * , Kulyan Kamytbekova 1
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1 Department of Infectious Diseases and Dermatovenerology, South Kazakhstan Medical Academy, Shymkent, Kazakhstan
* Corresponding Author
J CLIN MED KAZ, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp. 14-17. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/12854
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ABSTRACT

Introduction: In December 2019, China first encountered an unknown SARS-CoV-2 virus, after which a global lockdown began, first in European countries, and after a while the virus spread around the world. The course of COVID-19 aggravates the presence of concomitant diseases in the patient, among which diabetes mellitus occupies one of the first places. It should also be noted that the two-way interaction between COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus creates a vicious circle in which COVID-19 leads to worsening of dysglycemia, and diabetes mellitus, in turn, exacerbates the severity of COVID-19.
In this article, we evaluated the relationship between diabetes mellitus and the prognosis of COVID-19 in patients of the Shymkent Infectious Diseases Hospital.
Aim: Assessment of the relationship of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) with the course and outcomes of COVID-19, depending on clinical and laboratory parameters and concomitant diseases in an infectious hospital in Shymkent.
Material and methods: Electronic medical records of groups of COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=49) and without diabetes mellitus (n=151) were analyzed: demographic, clinical, laboratory and instrumental research methods; treatment regimens, complications and outcomes.
Results: Compared with patients without diabetes mellitus, patients with diabetes mellitus had a significantly higher incidence of bilateral pneumonia (95.92%). According to complications and clinical outcomes, the incidence of respiratory failure (42% vs. 24%, P=0.022), acute heart failure (51% vs. 18%, P<01) and death (24% vs. 8.0%, P=0.01) in the diabetes group was significantly higher than in the group without diabetes mellitus. In addition, patients with diabetes mellitus had higher levels of neutrophils (P=012), C-reactive protein (P=008), procalcitonin (P<01) and D-dimer (P=032) and lower levels of lymphocytes (P=0.032) and albumin (P=034).
Conclusion: Diabetes is a significant risk factor for an unfavorable prognosis of COVID-19. In order to avoid adverse outcomes, more attention should be paid to timely prevention and treatment of patients with diabetes, especially those who need insulin therapy.

CITATION

Ashirova M, Abuova G, Kamytbekova K. COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus: Clinical and laboratory features in hospitalized patients. J CLIN MED KAZ. 2023;20(1):14-7. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/12854

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