Effect of non-ionizing radiation on the health of medical staff of magnetic resonance imaging rooms

Lyazat Ibrayeva 1, Olga Grebeneva 2, Almagul Shadetova 2, Dina Rybalkina 1 * , Larissa Minbayeva 1, Irina Bacheva 1, Alexey Alekseyev 2
More Detail
1 Department of Internal Diseases, Karaganda Medical University, Karaganda, Kazakhstan
2 Institute of Public Health and Professional Health, Karaganda Medical University, Karaganda, Kazakhstan
* Corresponding Author
J CLIN MED KAZ, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp. 16-22. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/11188
OPEN ACCESS
Download Full Text (PDF)

ABSTRACT

Summary: The working conditions of medical staff in the offices of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with high levels of stationary magnetic fields (SMF) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) of various frequencies and increased work intensity. It can affect cognitive, psychological and hemodynamic changes of the body with health disorders. It requires not only high professional training, but also compliance with safety measures, as well as monitoring of working conditions, health status and carrying out of medical and preventive measures.

CITATION

Ibrayeva L, Grebeneva O, Shadetova A, Rybalkina D, Minbayeva L, Bacheva I, et al. Effect of non-ionizing radiation on the health of medical staff of magnetic resonance imaging rooms. J CLIN MED KAZ. 2021;18(4):16-22. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/11188

REFERENCES

  • 1. Semenova VN, Galuzo NA, Chirkova OG. About problems of studying the health of medical personnel [in Russian] Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2019; (9):744-744. doi: 10.31089/1026-9428-2019-59-9-744-745.
  • 2. Kosarev VV, Babanov SA. Occupational diseases of medical workers from exposure to physical factors [in Russian]. Тherapevt. 2010; (11):28-36.
  • 3. Ermolina TA, Martynova NA, Kuzmin AG. Features of morbidity from locomotory system diseases in medical staff ers [in Russian]. Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2018; (7):61-64. doi: 10.31089/1026-9428-2018-7-61-64.
  • 4. Larina VN, Glibko KV, Arakelov SE, Kasaeva DA. Behavioral risk factors, medical awareness and adherence to treatment of medical workers of a multidisciplinary city clinical hospital [in Russian]. Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2020; (5):305-310. doi: 10.31089/1026-9428-2020-60-5-305-310.
  • 5. Dubel EV, Unguryanu TN. Hygienic assessment of working conditions for medical personnel in clinical and paraclinical departments of the hospital [in Russian]. Gigiena i Sanitaria. 2016, 1(95):53-57. doi: 10.18821/0016-9900-2016-95-1-53-57.
  • 6. Kretov AS, Bushmanov AY, Udalov YD. Actual issues of medical examinations of workers in organizations using sources of ionizing radiation [in Russian]. Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2019; (9):663-663. doi: 10.31089/1026-9428-2019-59-9-663-664.
  • 7. Robbie DW. Occupational exposure in MRI. Br J Radiol. 2012; 85(1012):293-312. doi: 10.1259/bjr/30146162.
  • 8. Coskun O. Magnetic resonance imaging and safety aspects Toxicol Ind Health. 2011; 27:307. doi: 10.1177/0748233710386413)
  • 9. Tharmalingam H, Alonzi R, Hoskin PJ. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Brachytherapy. Clinical Oncology. 2018; 30 (11):728-736. doi: 10.1016/j.clon.2018.07.024.
  • 10. Rai R, Kumar S, Batumalai V, Elwadia D, Ohanessian L, Juresic E. et al. The integration of MRI in radiation therapy: collaboration of radiographers and radiation therapists Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences. 2017; 64 (1):61-68. doi: 10.1002/jmrs.225.
  • 11. Schaap K, Christopher-De Vries Y, Slottje P, Kromhout H. Inventory of MRI applications and workers exposed to MRI-related electromagnetic fields in the Netherlands. Eur J Radiol. 2013; 82:2279–85. doi: 10.1016 / j.ejrad.2013.07.023.
  • 12. Egorova A.M., Mokoyan B.O., Lutsenko L.A. Some aspects of revealing health risk factors in medical personnel working with magnetic resonance tomographs [in Russian]. Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2017; (2):34-37.
  • 13. Karpowicz J, Gryz К. Health Risk Assessment of Occupational Exposure to a Magnetic Field From Magnetic Resonance Imaging Devices. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2006; (12): 155–167. doi: 10.1080 / 10803548.2006.11076679.
  • 14. Mokoian BO. Hygienic characteristics of occupation for medical personnel working with magnetic resonance tomographs [in Russian]. Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2012; (3): 34-36. PMID: 22702134.
  • 15. Knave B. Electromagnetic fields and health outcomes Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2001; 30 (5):489-93. PMID: 11603131.
  • 16. Mamchik NP, Mokoyan BO, Kameneva OV, Gabbasova NV. Health state of medical personnel in MRI- tomography offices [in Russian]. Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2016; (7):9-13. PMID: 30351640.
  • 17. Ghadimi-Moghadam A, Mortazavi SMJ, Hosseini-Moghadam A, Haghani M, Taeb S, Hosseini MA. et al. Does Exposure to Static Magnetic Fields Generated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanners Raise Safety Problems for Personnel? J Biomed Phys Eng. 2018; 8(3):333-336. PMID: 30320037.
  • 18. Zanotti G, Ligabue G, Korpinen L, Gobba F. Subjective symptoms in Magnetic Resonance Imaging operators: prevalence, short-term evolution and possible related factors. Med Lav. 2016; 107(4):263-70. PMID: 27464899.
  • 19. de Vocht F, Batistatou E, Mölter A, Kromhout H, Schaap K, van Tongeren M. et al. Transient health symptoms of MRI staff working with 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla scanners in the UK. Eur Radiol 2015; 25:2718–2726. doi: 10.1007/s00330-015-3629-z.
  • 20. Huss A, Schaap K, Kromhout H. MRI-related magnetic field exposures and risk of commuting accidents - A cross-sectional survey among Dutch imaging technicians Environ Res. 2017; (7): 156:613-618. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.04.022.
  • 21. Bongers S, Slottje P, Portengen L, Kromhout H. Exposure to static magnetic fields and risk of accidents among a cohort of workers from a medical imaging device manufacturing facility. Magn Reson Med. 2016; 75(5):2165-2174. doi: 10.1002/mrm.25768.
  • 22. Capelastegui A, Fernández-Cantón G, Fernández-Ruanova B. The safety of magnetic resonance imaging: An analysis based on a review of incidents at the Osatek Center [Seguridad en resonancia magnética: Análisis basado en una revisión de incidentes en Osatek] Radiologia. 2006; 48 (4): 225-234. doi: 10.1016/S0033-8338(06)73159-9.
  • 23. Schenck JF. Health and safety effects of static magnetic fields: In book Shellock FG, editor. ed. Magnetic resonance procedures: impact on health and safety. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2001. PP. 1-29. doi: 10.1201/9781420041569.ch1.
  • 24. Hansson B, Olsrud J, Wilén J, Owman T, Höglund P, Björkman-Burtscher IM. Swedish national survey on MR safety compared with CT: a false sense of security? European Radiology. 2020; 30 (4):1918-1926. doi: 10.1007/s00330-019-06465-5.
  • 25. Stam R, Yamaguchi-Sekino S. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from medical sources. Ind Health. 2018; 56(2): 96-105. doi: 10.2486/indhealth.2017-0112
  • 26. Schenck JF. Physical interactions of static magnetic fields with living tissues. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. 2005; 87: (2-3):185–204. doi: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2004.08.009.
  • 27. Hardell L, Sage С. Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards. Biomed Pharmacother. 2008; 62 (2):104-9. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2007.12.004.
  • 28. Huss A, Schaap K, Kromhout H. A survey on abnormal uterine bleeding among radiographers with frequent MRI exposure using intrauterine contraceptive devices. Magn Reson Med. 2018; 79(2):1083-1089. doi: 10.1002/mrm.26707.
  • 29. Güngör HR, Ok N, Akkaya S, Akkaya N. Manyetik rezonans görüntüleme cihazlarının oluşturduğu statik manyetik alanın çalışanların kemik sağlığı üzerine olumsuz etkisi var mıdır? [Turkish]. Are there any adverse effects of static magnetic field from magnetic resonance imaging devices on bone health of workers? Eklem Hastalik Cerrahisi. 2014; 25(1):36-41. doi: 10.5606/ehc.2014.08. PMID: 24650383.
  • 30. Frankel J, Wilén J, Hansson Mild K. Assessing Exposures to Magnetic Resonance Imaging's Complex Mixture of Magnetic Fields for In Vivo, In Vitro, and Epidemiologic Studies of Health Effects for Staff and Patients. Front Public Health. 2018; 6:66. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00066.
  • 31. Scientific Committee on Emerging Newly Identified Health Risks. Opinion on the potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetism. 2015; 36:480–484. doi: 10.1002 / bem.21930).
  • 32. Bagheri Hosseinabadi MB, Khanjani N, Ebrahimi МH, Haji В, Abdolahfard М. The effect of chronic exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on sleep quality, stress, depression and anxiety. Electromagn Biol Med. 2019; 38 (1):96-101. doi: 10.1080 / 15368378.2018.154566.
  • 33. Liu H, Chen G, Pan Y, Chen Z, Jin W, Sun C. at all. Occupational Electromagnetic Field Exposures Associated with Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(10): e110825. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.011082.
  • 34. Kitaoka K, Kitamura M, Aoi Sh, Shimizu N, Yoshizaki K. Chronic exposure to an extremely low-frequency magnetic field induces depression-like behavior and corticosterone secretion without enhancement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in mice Bioelectromagnetics. 2013; 34 (1):43-51. doi: 10.1002 / bem.2174.
  • 35. Jauchem JR. Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and radiofrequency radiation: cardiovascular effects in humans. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1997; 70 (1):9-21. doi: 10.1007/s00420005018.
  • 36. Gatiyatullina LL. The factors affecting medical professionals health [in Russian]. Kazan medical journal. 2016; 97 (3):426-431. doi: 10.17750/KMJ2016-426.
  • 37. Huang PC, Cheng MT, Guo HR. Representative survey on idiopathic environmental intolerance related to electromagnetic fields in Taiwan and comparison with international literature. Environmental Health. 2018; 17 (1):5. doi: 10.1186 / s12940-018-0351-8.
  • 38. Modenese A, Gobba F. Occupational Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields and Health Surveillance According to the European Directive 2013/35/EU Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021; 18(4): 1730. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18041730.
  • 39. Reilly JP. Applied Bioelectricity. From Electrical Stimulation to Electropathology. Springer-Verlag New York, 1998. 563 p. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-1664-3.
  • 40. Belyaev I, Dean A, Eger H, Hubmann G, Jandrisovits R, Kern M. et al. EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2016 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnesses. Rev Environ Health. 2016; 31(3):363-97. doi: 10,1515 / reveh-2016-0011.
  • 41. Wyde M, Cesta M, Blystone C, Elmore S, Foster P, Hooth M. et al. Report of Partial Findings from the National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley® SD rats (Whole Body Exposures) bioRxiv. 2016: 055699. doi: 10.1101/055699.
  • 42. Yakimenko I, Sidorik E, Kirilenko S, Chekhun V. Long-term exposure to microwave radiation provokes cancer growth: data from radars and mobile communication systems [in Russian]. Oncol experience. 2011; 33:62–70.
  • 43. Carlberg M, Hedendahl L, Ahonen M, Koppel T, Hardell L. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries with main focus on Swedish data. BMC Cancer. 2016; 16 (7):426. doi: 10.1186 / s12885-016-2429-4.
  • 44. Wang Z, Fei Y, Liu H, Zheng Sh, Ding Z, JinW. Effects of electromagnetic fields exposure on plasma hormonal and inflammatory pathway biomarkers in male workers of a power plant. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2016; 89:33–42.
  • 45. Wolf FI, Torsello A, Tedesco B, Fasanella S, Boninsegna A, D'Ascenzo M. et al. Extremely low frequency 50 Hz electromagnetic fields enhance cell proliferation and DNA damage: possible involvement of the redox mechanism. Biochem Biophys Acta. 2005; 1743:120–129.
  • 46. Ivancsits S, Diem E, Jahn O, Rüdiger HW, Intermittent extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields cause DNA damage in a dose-dependent way. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2003; 76:431–436.
  • 47. Foksinski М, Kotzbach R, Szymanski W, Olinski R. The level of typical biomarker of oxidative stress 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine is higher in uterine myomas than in control tissues and correlates with the size of the tumor. Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 2000; 29:597–601.
  • 48. Matsui A, Ikeda T, Enomoto K, Hosoda K, Nakashima H, Omae K. et al. Increased formation of oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, in human breast cancer tissue and its relationship to GSTP1 and COMT genotypes. Cancer Lett. 2000; 151:87–95.
  • 49. Tuschl H., Neubauer G, Schmid G, Weber E, Winker N. Occupational exposure to static, ELF, VF and VLF magnetic fields and immune parameters Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2000; 13 (1): 39–50. PMID: 10846844.
  • 50. Frahm J, Mattsson MO, Simkó M. Frahm J, Mattsson MO, Simko M. Exposure to ELF magnetic fields modulate redox related protein expression in mouse macrophages. Toxicol Lett. 2010; 192 (3):330–336. doi: 10.1016 / j.toxlet.2009.11.010.
  • 51. Israel M, Ivanova M, Zaryabova V, Ivanova P, Topalova I, Petkova H. New aspects of legislation concerning EMF exposure to medical personnel in MRI. RAD Conference Proceedings, 2014:235-238. doi: 2-s2.0-85057759271.
  • 52. Zmyślony M, Mamrot P, Politański P. Exposure of nurses to electromagnetic fields Ekspozycja pielȩgniarek na pola elektromagnetyczne. Medycyna Pracy. 2004; 55 (2):183-187. doi: 2-s2.0-16544390527.
  • 53. Decree of the Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Approval of Hygienic Standards for Physical Factors Influencing Human" dated February 28, 2015 № 169.
  • 54. Kim SJ, Kim KA. Safety issues and updates under MR environments. European Journal of Radiology. 2017; 89:7-13. doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2017.01.010.
  • 55. Stam R. The Revised Electromagnetic Fields Directive and Worker Exposure in Environments with High Magnetic Flux Densities. Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 2014; 58(5): 529–541. doi: 10.1093/annhyg/meu010.
  • 56. Fuentes MA, Trakic A, Wilson SJ, Crozier S. Analysis and measurements of magnetic field exposures for healthcare workers in selected MR environments IEEE. Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 2008; 55 (4):1355-1364. doi: 10.1109/TBME/2007.913410.
  • 57. Gajšek P, Ravazzani P, Grellier J, Samaras T, Bakos J, Thuróczy G. Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz–100 kHz) Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2016; 13(9):875. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13090875.
  • 58. Karpowicz J, Gryz К. Health Risk Assessment of Occupational Exposure to a Magnetic Field from Magnetic Resonance Imaging Devices. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2006; 12 (2):155-67. doi: 10,1080 / 10803548.2006.11076679.
  • 59. Batistatou E, Mölter A, Kromhout H, van Tongeren M, Crozier S, Schaap K. et al. Personal exposure to static and time-varying magnetic fields during MRI procedures in clinical practice in the UK. Occupational and environmental medicine. 2016; 73 (11):779-786. doi: 10.1136oemed-2015-103194.
  • 60. Schaap K, Christopher-De Vries Y, Crozier S, De Vocht F, Kromhout H. Exposure to static and time-varying magnetic fields from working in the static magnetic stray fields of MRI scanners: a comprehensive survey in the Netherlands. Ann Occup Hyg. 2014; 58(9):1094-110. doi: 10.1093/annhyg/meu057.
  • 61. Schaap K, Christopher-De Vries Y, Cambron-Goulet É, Kromhout H. Work-related factors associated with occupational exposure to static magnetic stray fields from MRI scanners Magn Reson Med. 2016; 75(5):2141-55. doi: 10.1002/mrm.25720.
  • 62. Moro L, Alabiso F, Parisoli F, Frigerio F. Experimental evaluation of the occupational exposure to static magnetic fields on a 3 T magnetic resonance scanner [in Italian.]. G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2013; 35(1):26-31. PMID: 23798231.
  • 63. Yamaguchi-Sekino S, Nakai T, Imai S, Izawa S, Okuno T. Occupational exposure levels of static magnetic field during routine MRI examination in 3T MR system Bioelectromagnetics. 2014; 35(1):70-5. doi: 10.1002/bem.21817.
  • 64. Crozier S, Trakic A, Wang H, Liu F. Numerical study of currents in workers induced by body-motion around high-ultrahigh field MRI magnets. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2007; 26 (5):1261-1277. doi: 10.1002/jmri.21160.
  • 65. Riches SF, Collins DJ, Charles-Edwards GD, Shafford JC, Cole J, Keevil SF, Leach MO. Measurements of occupational exposure to switched gradient and spatially-varying magnetic fields in areas adjacent to 1.5T clinical MRI systems. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2007; 26 (5):1346-1352. doi: 10.1002/jmri.21139.
  • 66. Luzhna L, Kathiria P, Kovalchuk O. Micronuclei in genotoxicity assessment: from genetics to epigenetics and beyond. Front. Genet., 2017; 5:344. doi: 10.3389 / fpubh.2017.00344.
  • 67. Alghamdi A, Alsharari Z, Almatari M, Alkhalailah M, Alamri S, Alghamdi A. et al. Radiation Risk Awareness Among Health Care Professionals: An Online Survey. Journal of Radiology Nursing. 2020; 39 (2):132-138. doi: 10.1016/j.jradnu.2019.11/004.
  • 68. Jokela K., Saunders RD. Physiologic and dosimetric considerations for limiting electric fields induced in the body by movement in a static magnetic field. Health Physics. 2011; 100 (6):641-653. doi: 10.1097/HP.0b013e318202ec7e.
  • 69. Ghadimi-Moghadam A, Mortazavi SMJ, Hosseini-Moghadam A, Haghani M, Taeb S, Hosseini MA. et al. Does exposure to static magnetic fields generated by magnetic resonance imaging scanners raise safety problems for personnel? Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering. 2018; 8 (3):333-336. doi: 10.122086/jbpe.v0i0.653.
  • 70. Zhang Y, Zhang D, Zhu B, Zhang H, Sun Y, Sun Ch. Effects of dietary green tea polyphenol supplementation on the health of workers exposed to high-voltage power lines Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016; 46:183-187. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2016.07.016.
  • 71. Dobbins JT, Frush DP, Kigongo CJN, MacFall JR, Reiman RE, Trahey GE. Medical imaging safety in the developing world. Radiology in Global Health: Strategies, Implementation, and Applications. 2014; 9781461406044:41-60. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-0604-4_7.
  • 72. Cross NM, Hoff MN, Kanal KM. Avoiding MRI-Related Accidents: A Practical Approach to Implementing MR Safety. Journal of the American College of Radiology. 2018; 15 (12):1738-1744. doi: 10.1016/j.jacr.2018.06.022.
  • 73. Westbrook C, Talbot J. What do MRI radiographers really know? European Journal of Radiography. 2009; 1 (2):52-60. doi: 10.1016/j.ejradi.2009.04.001
  • 74. Munn Z, Pearson A, Jordan Z, Murphy F, Pilkington D, Anderson A. Addressing the Patient Experience in a Magnetic Resonance Imaging Department: Final Results from an Action Research Study. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences. 2016; 47 (4):329-336. doi: 10.1016/j.jmir.2016.04.007.
  • 75. Crisp S, Dawdy K. Building a Magnetic Resonance Imaging Safety Culture from the Ground Up. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences. 2018; 49 (1):18-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jmir.2017.10.005
  • 76. Acri G., Inferrera P, Denaro L, Sansotta C, Ruello E, Anfuso C. et al. dB/dt evaluation in MRI sites: Is ICNIRP threshold limit (for workers) exceeded? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15 (7): e 1298. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15071298
  • 77. Gilk T, Kanal E. Planning an MR suite: What can be done to enhance safety? Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2015; 42 (3):566-571. doi: 10.1002/jmri.24794.
  • 78. Leitgeb N, Gombotz H. Arbeiten im Magnetfeld von Ultrahochfeld-MRT. Working in the magnetic field of ultrahigh field MRI [German]. Radiologe. 2013; 53(5):429-33. doi: 10.1007/s00117-013-2506-5.
  • 79. Pokhodzey L.V., Rudneva E.A., Paltzev Yu.P. Investigation of the spectral characteristics of low-frequency magnetic fields in different modes of operation of magnetic resonance imaging [in Russian]. Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2019; (9):727-727. doi: 10.31089/1026-9428-2019-59-9-727-728.
  • 80. Pokhodzey L.V., Rudneva E.A., Courierov N.N. Actual problems of hygienic assessment of electromagnetic fields and noise in magnetic resonance imaging departments [in Russian]. Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2019; (9):726-726. doi: 10.31089/1026-9428-2019-59-9-726-727.
  • 81. Stam R, Yamaguchi-Sekino S Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from medical sources. Ind Health. 2018; 56(2):96-105. doi: 10.2486 / indhealth.2017-0112.