Epidemiology of Congenital Heart Disease in Kazakhstan: Data from the Unified National Electronic Healthcare System 2014-2021

Dmitriy Syssoyev 1, Aslan Seitkamzin 1, Natalya Lim 1, Kamilla Mussina 1, Dimitri Poddighe 1 2, Abduzhappar Gaipov 1 3, Dinara Galiyeva 1 *
More Detail
1 Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Nazarbayev University, Astana, Kazakhstan
2 Clinical Academic Department of Pediatrics, National Research Center for Maternal and Child Health, University Medical Center (UMC), Astana, Kazakhstan
3 Clinical Academic Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center (UMC), Astana, Kazakhstan
* Corresponding Author
J CLIN MED KAZ, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp. 49-55. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/14683
OPEN ACCESS 117 Views 116 Downloads
Download Full Text (PDF)
Author Contributions: Conceptualization, D.S., D.G., and K.M.; methodology, D.S.; validation, D.S. and K.M.; formal analysis, D.S.; investigation, D.S., D.G., and K.M.; resources, D.G. and A.G.; data curation, D.G. and A.G.; writing – original draft preparation, D.S.; writing – review and editing, D.G. and D.P.; visualization, D.S.; supervision, D.G. and D.P.; project administration, D.G.; funding acquisition, D.G and A.G. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of congenital heart disease (CHD) in Kazakhstan, using the data from the Unified National Electronic Healthcare System (UNEHS) for the period of 2014-2021. This retrospective cohort study included all patients diagnosed with CHD in Kazakhstan and registered in the UNEHS between January 2014 and December 2021. CHDs were defined based on ICD-10 codes Q20-Q26. Incidence, prevalence, and all-cause mortality rates were calculated per 100,000 population. Survival analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards regression modeling and Kaplan-Meier method. The cohort consisted of 68,371 CHD patients, of whom 61,285 (89.6%) had a single CHD type, 40,767 (59.6%) were diagnosed before the age of 1 year, and 5,225 (7.6%) died over the study period. Incidence of CHD decreased from 64.6 to 47.3 cases per 100,000 population in males, and from 68.7 to 42.5 cases in females between 2014 and 2020. All-cause mortality rates per 100,000 population increased from 3.3 to 4.7 cases among males, and from 2.7 to 3.7 among females between 2014 and 2020. Survival analysis showed that in patients diagnosed with CHD before 1 year of age, risk of death was significantly associated with male sex (hazard ratio [HR] 1.17), multiple CHD types (HR 1.70), and no performed surgery (HR 0.57). In patients diagnosed with CHD after 1 year of age, risk factors were male sex (HR 1.65), multiple CHD types (HR 1.55), and no performed surgery (HR 1.82).


Syssoyev D, Seitkamzin A, Lim N, Mussina K, Poddighe D, Gaipov A, et al. Epidemiology of Congenital Heart Disease in Kazakhstan: Data from the Unified National Electronic Healthcare System 2014-2021. J CLIN MED KAZ. 2024;21(3):49-55. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/14683


  • Liu Y, Chen S, Zühlke L, Black GC, Choy M, Li N, et al. Global birth prevalence of congenital heart defects 1970–2017: updated systematic review and meta-analysis of 260 studies. Int J Epidemiol. 2019;48(2):455-463. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyz009
  • Wu W, He J, Shao X. Incidence and mortality trend of congenital heart disease at the global, regional, and national level, 1990–2017. Medicine. 2020;99(23):e20593. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020593
  • Zimmerman MS, Smith AGC, Sable CA, Echko MM, Wilner LB, Olsen HE, et al. Global, regional, and national burden of congenital heart disease, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2020;4(3):185-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(19)30402-X
  • Dellborg M, Giang KW, Eriksson P, Liden H, Fedchenko M, Ahnfelt A, et al. Adults with congenital heart disease: trends in event-free survival past middle age. Circulation. 2023;147(12):930-938. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.122.060834
  • Bouma BJ, Mulder BJM. Changing landscape of congenital heart disease. Circ Res. 2017;120(6):908-922. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.309302
  • Sermanizova G, Seisembekov T, Nakipov Z. Epidemiological characteristics of congenital heart diseases in Kazakhstan. Sci World. 2014;6(10):31-34. Available from: http://scienceph.ru/f/science-and-world--6-%2810%29-june-vol.-i.pdf
  • National Statistical Bureau. Taldau statistics. Available from: https://www.taldau.stat.gov.kz [Accessed 27 August 2023].
  • Saad H, Casey F, Dolk H, Loane M. Prevalence and trends of congenital heart defects among live births from 2005 to 2014 in Northern Ireland. Cardiol Young. 2022:1-7. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1047951122001937
  • Bernier PL, Stefanescu A, Samoukovic G, Tchervenkov CI. The challenge of congenital heart disease worldwide: epidemiologic and demographic facts. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu. 2010;13(1):26-34. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.pcsu.2010.02.005
  • Hoffman JI, Kaplan S. The incidence of congenital heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39(12):1890-1900. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0735-1097(02)01886-7
  • Egbe A, Uppu S, Stroustrup A, Lee S, Ho D, Srivastava S. Incidences and sociodemographics of specific congenital heart diseases in the United States of America: An evaluation of hospital discharge diagnoses. Pediatr Cardiol. 2014;35(6):975-982. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00246-014-0884-8
  • Cleves MA, Ghaffar S, Zhao W, Mosley BS, Hobbs CA. First‐year survival of infants born with congenital heart defects in Arkansas (1993‐1998): A survival analysis using registry data. Birth Defects Res Part A Clin Mol Teratol. 2003;67(9):662-668. https://doi.org/10.1002/bdra.10119
  • Mandalenakis Z, Giang KW, Eriksson P, Liden H, Synnergren M, Wåhlander H, et al. Survival in children with congenital heart disease: have we reached a peak at 97%? J Am Heart Assoc. 2020;9(22):e017704. https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017704