Epidemiology of glomerular diseases in Kazakhstan during the period of 2014-2019: data from the Unified national electronic healthcare system

Ainur Assan 1 * , Gulnur Zhakhina 2, Zakira Kerimbayeva 3, Ikilas Moldaliyev 1, Dmitry Sychev 4, Saltanat Tuganbekova 5, Abduzhappar Gaipov 2
More Detail
1 Faculty of Medicine, Khoja Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish University, Turkestan, Kazakhstan
2 Department of Medicine, Nazarbayev University School of Medicine, Astana, Kazakhstan
3 Department of Public Health and Management, NJSC “Astana Medical University”, Astana, Kazakhstan
4 Faculty of Medicine, Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education, Ministry of Healthcare, Moscow, Russia
5 Department of Nephrology, NJSC “Astana Medical University”, Astana, Kazakhstan
* Corresponding Author
J CLIN MED KAZ, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp. 55-60. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/14270
OPEN ACCESS 336 Views 241 Downloads
Download Full Text (PDF)
Author Contributions
Conceptualization, A. A.; methodology, A. A. and G. Z.; validation, G. Z. and D. S.; formal analysis, D. S. and I. M.; investigation, A. A. and Z. K.; resources, S. T.; data curation, D. S. and A. G.; writing – original draft preparation, A. A.; writing – review and editing, A. A.; visualization, S. T. and I. M.; supervision, D. S. and A. G.; project administration, A. A.; funding acquisition, A. A. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


Brief Description: The investigation of glomerular disease prevalence is vital for comprehending chronic kidney disease development, particularly in regions like Kazakhstan and Central Asia, where confirming data is lacking. This study focuses on the epidemiology of glomerular diseases, utilizing registered cases of glomerular diseases in the national electronic health system.
Research Methods: The research involves data from 31,421 patients recorded in the Unified National Electronic Healthcare System database, covering glomerular diseases with ICD-10 codes N01-N08 between 2014 and 2019. Descriptive statistics encompass demographic characteristics, all-cause mortality, prevalence and incidence rates, and comorbidities.
Results: Results reveal a substantial rise in diagnosed cases from 7,756 (2014) to 30,686 (2019), with corresponding all-cause mortality increasing from 254 to 1,025. Also, new cases went up from 4,875 (2014) to 6,320 (2019). Over the period, 51% were women, 49% were men, and 67% were of Kazakh ethnicity. Russian nationality constituted 16%, and other ethnic groups comprised 17%. Diabetes mellitus emerged as the primary comorbidity, associated with 20% of cases.
Conclusion: This is the first descriptive study in Central Asia scrutinizing the epidemiology of patients with glomerular diseases (ICD-10 code N01-N08) using administrative healthcare data in Kazakhstan. The findings indicate an escalation in prevalence and mortality, coupled with a gradual increase in incidence among glomerular disease patients from 2014 to 2019. The study underscores the pivotal role of diabetes mellitus as a predominant comorbidity in this context.


Assan A, Zhakhina G, Kerimbayeva Z, Moldaliyev I, Sychev D, Tuganbekova S, et al. Epidemiology of glomerular diseases in Kazakhstan during the period of 2014-2019: data from the Unified national electronic healthcare system. J CLIN MED KAZ. 2024;21(1):55-60. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/14270


  • Chadban SJ, Atkins RC. Glomerulonephritis. Lancet (London, England). 2005; 365(9473): 1797–1806. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66583-X.
  • National Health Service. Glomerulonephritis overview. NHS. 2023; https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/glomerulonephritis/#:~:text=Causes%20of%20glomerulonephritis,HIV.
  • Guo Q, Wu S, Xu C, Wang J, Chen J. Global Disease Burden From Acute Glomerulonephritis 1990-2019. Kidney international reports. 2021; 6(8): 2212–2217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2021.04.038.
  • Wetmore JB, Guo H, Liu J, Collins AJ, Gilbertson DT. The incidence, prevalence, and outcomes of glomerulonephritis derived from a large retrospective analysis. Kidney international. 2016; 90(4):853–860. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2016.04.026.
  • Kazi AM, Hashmi MF. Glomerulonephritis. statpearls. 2023; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK560644/.
  • Salifu OM. Chronic Glomerulonephritis. Medscape. November 2022; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/239392-overview?Form=fpf.
  • Statistics committee Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Main Socio-Economic Indicators 2019. http://stat.gov.kz/.
  • Obrador GT, Schultheiss UT, Kretzler M, Langham RG, Nangaku M, Pecoits-Filho R, Pollock C, Rossert J, Correa-Rotter R, Stenvinkel P, Walker R, Yang CW, Fox CS, & Köttgen A. Genetic and environmental risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Kidney international supplements. 2017; 7(2): 88–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kisu.2017.07.004.
  • Brachemi S, Bollée G. Renal biopsy practice: What is the gold standard? World journal of nephrology. 2014; 3(4): 287–294. https://doi.org/10.5527/wjn.v3.i4.287.
  • Zhakhina G, Gaipov A, Mussina K, Yerdessov S, Gusmanov A, Sakko Y, Syssoyev D, Kim V, Kuanshgaliyeva Z, Turebekov D. WCN23-1016 current epidemiology and forecasting the trend of chronic kidney disease in Kazakhstan. Kidney International Reports. 2023; 8(3):181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2023.02.402.
  • Gordon EJ, Prohaska TR, Sehgal AR. The financial impact of immunosuppressant expenses on new kidney transplant recipients. Clinical transplantation. 2008; 22(6): 738–748. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-0012.2008.00869.x.
  • Dendooven A, Peetermans H, Helbert M, Nguyen TQ, Marcussen N, Nagata M, Gesualdo L, Perkowska-Ptasinska A, Capusa C, López-Gómez JM, Geddes C, Abdul-Hamid MA, Segelmark M, Yahya, R., Garau M, Villanueva R, Dorman A, Barbour S, Cornet R, Hopfer H, Amann K, Leh S. Kidney Biopsy Codes for Pathologists project (www.kibico.org). Coding practice in national and regional kidney biopsy registries. BMC nephrology. 2021; 22(1): 193. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12882-021-02365-3.
  • Muxunov A, Bulanov N, Makhmetov S, Sharapov O, Abdullaev S, Loboda O, Aiypova D, Haziyev E., Rashidov, I., Tchokhonelidze, I., Okpechi, I. G., & Gaipov, A. Awareness of chronic kidney disease and its risk factors in the former Soviet Union countries. Electronic Journal of General Medicine. 2023; 20(6): em528. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejgm/13517.
  • Chen X, Orom H, Hay JL, Waters EA, Schofield E, Li Y, Kiviniemi MT. Differences in Rural and Urban Health Information Access and Use. The Journal of rural health: official journal of the American Rural Health Association and the National Rural Health Care Association. 2019; 35(3):405–417. https://doi.org/10.1111/jrh.12335.
  • Galiyeva D, Gusmanov A, Sakko Y, et al. Epidemiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Kazakhstan: data from unified National Electronic Health System 2014–2019. BMC Endocr Disord. 2022; 22: 275. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12902-022-01200-6.
  • Hutton HL, Levin A, Gill J, Djurdjev O, Tang M, Barbour SJ. Cardiovascular risk is similar in patients with glomerulonephritis compared to other types of chronic kidney disease: a matched cohort study. BMC nephrology. 2017; 18(1): 95. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12882-017-0511-z.
  • Yerdessov S, Kadyrzhanuly K, Sakko Y, Gusmanov A, Zhakhina G, Galiyeva D, Bekbossynova M, Salustri A, Gaipov A. Epidemiology of Arterial Hypertension in Kazakhstan: Data from Unified Nationwide Electronic Healthcare System 2014–2019. Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. 2022; 9(2): 52. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd9020052.