Genes, Antibodies, and Cytokines in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Update of Potential Biomarkers

Lina Zaripova 1 * , Abai Baigenzhin 2, Alyona Boltanova 3, Talgat Iglikov 4, Maxim Solomadin 5, Diana Makimova 6, Larissa Kozina 3, Elmira Chuvakova 7
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1 Department of Scientific and Innovation Management, National Scientific Medical Center, Astana, Kazakhstan
2 Chairman of the Board, National Scientific Medical Center, Astana, Kazakhstan
3 Central Research Laboratory, National Scientific Medical Center, Astana, Kazakhstan
4 Genetic laboratory, National Scientific Medical Center, Astana, Kazakhstan
5 School of Pharmacy, Karaganda Medical University, Karaganda, Kazakhstan
6 Department of Internal Medicine No. 4, Astana Medical University, Astana, Kazakhstan
7 Deputy Chairman of the Board in the field of science, National Scientific Medical Center, Astana, Kazakhstan
* Corresponding Author
J CLIN MED KAZ, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp. 11-19.
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Author contribution. L.Z. conceived of the presented idea. D.M., M.S., T.I. and Al.B. developed the theory. L.K. and E.Ch. verified the analytical methods. A.B. supervised the findings of this work. All authors discussed the results and contributed to the final manuscript.


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology, with the broad range of antibodies affecting various organs and tissues, leading to rapid disability and even to lethal outcome. Our objective was to make an analysis of the results of relevant global studies about genetic mutations, spectrum of antibodies and cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. The search was conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar platforms using keywords “systemic lupus erythematosus”, “genetic mutations”, “autoantibodies”, “cytokine production”, “sequencing”, “NGS" and "exome". Several genes were found to be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE, the majority of which were associated with B- and T-cell abnormal activation. The results of different studies revealed an association of active SLE with the increase in specific circulating autoantibodies. Based on the results of the current review, a preliminary list of autoantibodies, genes and cytokines associated with the development of SLE was prepared. Future directions will include the assessment of association of genes, antibodies and cytokines in SLE patients from the local Kazakh population, and the development of genetic-immunologic panel for the early diagnosis of this disease.


Zaripova L, Baigenzhin A, Boltanova A, Iglikov T, Solomadin M, Makimova D, et al. Genes, Antibodies, and Cytokines in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Update of Potential Biomarkers. J CLIN MED KAZ. 2024;21(3):11-9.


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