Modern vision on the problem of urolithiasis in children: Epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, clinical, diagnostics, treatment, metaphylaxis

Assel Sagymbayeva 1 2 *
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1 Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
2 Pediatric Urology Department, Scientific Center of Pediatrics and Pediatric Surgery, Almaty, Kazakhstan
* Corresponding Author
J CLIN MED KAZ, In press.
OPEN ACCESS

ABSTRACT

According to the study literature, urolithiasis remains one of the most common nosologies among the child population. In connection with the global changes in the health status of the population of our planet, the social significance of urolithiasis has recently acquired new relevance. The mechanism of stone formation is a complex process; stones are formed as a result of urine saturation with oxalates, calcium, uric acid, cystine. Most stones in children are located in the upper urinary tract. In 15%-25% of cases in children, urolithiasis may be asymptomatic. Diagnostics today are not difficult. If urolithiasis is suspected, first, among the instrumental research methods, ultrasound examination of the urinary tract is used, which identifies both X-ray-positive and X-ray-negative stones. Nowadays, not all standards for treating obstructing stones of the upper urinary tract in children of various sizes and localizations, as well as the type of pelvis structure, have been defined. Simultaneously, new trends in treatment may change already existing standards. It should be noted that in the modern world, and ways of metaphylaxis urolithiasis in children studied insufficiently. In the world literature, there is insufficient information on predicting the occurrence of recurrence of urolithiasis and ways to eliminate them. This literature review examines the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis of urolithiasis, diagnosis, existing treatment standards and metaphylaxis. Methods of active tactics of treatment of obstructive stones of the upper urinary tract are analysed in more detail.

CITATION

Sagymbayeva A. Modern vision on the problem of urolithiasis in children: Epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, clinical, diagnostics, treatment, metaphylaxis. J Clin Med Kaz. 2021.

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