Prevalence of COVID-19 related factors among medical and emergency and critical care nursing students during COVID-19 pandemic outbreak

Waleed Rana 1 * , Shamim Mukhtar 2, Sonia Mukhtar 3
More Detail
1 Hainan Medical Hospital, Haikou, China
2 College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
3 Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
* Corresponding Author
J CLIN MED KAZ, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp. 85-89.
OPEN ACCESS 982 Views 639 Downloads
Download Full Text (PDF)


In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the frailty as a prognostic factor of acute myocardial infarction in elderly patients. Frailty is an important prognostic marker of frequent complications, readmission to hospital, high hospital mortality and major cardiovascular events in elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction. This category of persons is often not allowed to undergo invasive interventions and are often excluded from the recommended treatment, and they tolerate cardiac surgery worse, recovery from illness is slower, functionality decreases, then disability and death develop.
The present review aims to investigate the impact of frailty on management of elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
To analyze the literature, we searched for information on this issue in PubMed / MEDLINE, PMC, Web of Science, Scopus, The Сochrane[AA1] [П2]  Library. The search depth was 15 years: from 2006 to 2021.
One of the important factors in improving clinical outcomes, improving the quality of life in elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction is the early detection of frailty. Frailty assessment is a valuable tool for risk stratification that can be helpful to clinicians in deciding the optimal pathway for management and treatment strategies. Risk prediction is also important for deciding secondary prevention and cardiac rehabilitation measures in the elderly with acute myocardial infarction.
Key words: acute myocardial infarction, advanced age, frailty, prognosis, risk assessment


Rana W, Mukhtar S, Mukhtar S. Prevalence of COVID-19 related factors among medical and emergency and critical care nursing students during COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. J CLIN MED KAZ. 2022;19(1):85-9.


  • Rana W, Mukhtar S, Mukhtar S, Mohiuddin G, & Ehmad A. Psychological health of aging mental healthcare social workforce amidst coronavirus disease‐2019 pandemic. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 2021; 36(3): 461-462.
  • Lee J. Mental health effects of school closures during COVID-19. The Lancet. 2020.
  • Mukhtar S. Psychological health during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic outbreak. International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 2020; 66(5), 512–516.
  • Akan H, Gurol Y, Izbirak G, Ozdatli S, Yilmaz G, Vitrinel A, Hayran O. Knowledge and attitudes of university students toward pandemic influenza: A cross-sectional study from Turkey. BMC Public Health. 2010; 10(1):1–8.
  • Mukhtar S. Mental Health and Emotional Impact of COVID-19: Applying Health Belief Model for Medical Staff to General Public of Pakistan. Brain Behavior, and Immunity. 2020.
  • Mukhtar S. Feminism and gendered impact of COVID‐19: Perspective of a counselling psychologist. Gender, Work & Organization. 2020; 27(5):827-832.
  • Rana W, Mukhtar S, Mukhtar S. Mental Health of Medical Workers in Pakistan during the Pandemic COVID-19 Outbreak. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 51.
  • Mukhtar, S. Psychology and politics of COVID-19 misinfodemics: Why and how do people believe in misinfodemics? International Sociology. 2021; 36(1):111-123.
  • Mukhtar, S. 8 minutes and 46 seconds of ‘I Can’t Breathe’: A call for anti-racist feminist solidarity amid COVID-19. International Social Work. 2021; 64(2):255-260.
  • Burke RM, Midgley CM, Dratch A, Fenstersheib M, Haupt T, Holshue M. Active monitoring of persons exposed to patients with confirmed COVID-19 United States, January–February 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2020; 69(9):245–246.
  • World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 73. WHO 2020
  • World Health Organization. Coronavirus. WHO 2020.
  • Mukhtar S, Rana W. COVID-19 and individuals with mental illness in psychiatric facilities. Psychiatry Research. 2020; 289:113075.
  • Hanrahan C. Coronavirus response wins support — but we’re less happy with other Aussies’ behaviour. ABC News (2020, April 16).
  • Ja’ashan M. Perceptions and attitudes towards blended learning for English courses: A case study of students at University of Bisha Mohammed. English Language Teaching. 2015; 8(9):40–50
  • Mukhtar S. Mental Health and Psychosocial Aspects of Coronavirus Outbreak in Pakistan: Psychological Intervention for Public Mental Health Crisis. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 51.
  • Roy D, Tripathy S, Kar S., Sharma N, Verma S, Kaushal V. Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 Pandemic. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 51:102083–102087.
  • Mukhtar S, Mukhtar S, & Rana W. COVID-19 Feminist Framework to Address Public Health Impact of Violence, Abuse, and Trauma in Children, Women, BIPOC, and LGBTQIA+ Community: A Preliminary Observation. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health. 2021; 33(5):645–647.
  • Faye O, Boelle PY, Heleze E, Faye O, Loucoubar C, Magassouba N, Soropogui B, Keita S, Gakou T, Bah el, HI, Koivogui L, Sall AA, Cauchemez S. Chains of transmission and control of Ebola virus disease in Conakry, Guinea, in 2014: An observational study. The Lancet. 2-15; 15(3):320–326.
  • Mukhtar S & Mahmood Z. Moderating Role of Perceived Social Support between Perceived Parenting Styles and Relational Aggression in Adolescents. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma. 2018; 27(8):831-845.
  • Khalid I, Khalid T, Qabajah M, Barnard A, Qushmaq I. Healthcare workers emotions, perceived stressors and coping strategies during a MERS-CoV outbreak. Clinical Medicine & Research. 2016; 14(1):7–14.