The impact of exercise on cardiovascular system: Molecular signaling pathway and cardiac adaptations

Bauyrzhan Toktarbay 1 * , Zaukiya Khamitova 1, Nurmakhan Zholshybek 1, Dinara Jumadilova 1 2, Yeltay Rakhmanov 1, Makhabbat Bekbossynova 3, Abduzhappar Gaipov 1, Alessandro Salustri 1 *
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1 Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Nazarbayev University, Astana, Kazakhstan
2 Radiology Unit, National Research Cardiac Surgery Center, Astana, Kazakhstan
3 Cardiology Unit No2, National Research Cardiac Surgery Center, Astana, Kazakhstan
* Corresponding Author
J CLIN MED KAZ, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp. 4-11. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/13825
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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this review is to describe the impact of endurance and strength physical training on the cardiovascular system by reviewing the molecular signaling pathways, which plays a key role in different muscle adaptations, and the cardiac changes in terms of metabolic and cardiac remodeling, and hemodynamics. In response to endurance-exercise, multiple signaling pathways, including Ca2+-dependent pathways, reactive oxygen species (ROS), AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK), and mitogen activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK), are involved in the regulation of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), which controls the mitochondrial biogenesis. Strength training increases the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) which initiates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-k)-(AKT)-(mTOR) signaling cascade, resulting in the synthesis of proteins and the muscle hypertrophy. In addition to the well-documented changes in skeletal muscle, a critical component of the response to exercise training is the dynamic cardiac remodeling, which is classified as either pathological or physiological depending on triggers.

CITATION

Toktarbay B, Khamitova Z, Zholshybek N, Jumadilova D, Rakhmanov Y, Bekbossynova M, et al. The impact of exercise on cardiovascular system: Molecular signaling pathway and cardiac adaptations. J CLIN MED KAZ. 2023;20(6):4-11. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/13825

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