The impact of working unit and being diagnosed with COVID-19 on secondary traumatic stress level in midwives: A cross-sectional and comparative study

Ayşe Nur Yilmaz 1, Sümeyye Altiparmak 2, Yeşim Aksoy Derya 2 *
More Detail
1 Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Fırat University, Elazığ, Turkey
2 Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey
* Corresponding Author
J CLIN MED KAZ, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp. 46-51. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/11040
OPEN ACCESS
Download Full Text (PDF)

ABSTRACT

Aim: This research aims to determine the impact of the unit they work at and being diagnosed with Covid-19 on the secondary traumatic stress level in midwives.
Method: Sample of the cross-sectional and comparative research consists of 170 midwives working in a province located in the east of Turkey. The data was collected with Personal Information Form and Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale (STSS). Descriptive statistics, t-test in independent groups and One-way Anova Analysis were used for data analysis.
Results: It was determined that 27.1% of the midwives work at Covid service, 28.8% work at community health/family health centres and 44.1% work at other services. It was determined that the rate of midwives who were diagnosed with Covid-19 during the pandemic was 69.4%, the rate of midwives whose close colleagues were diagnosed with Covid-19 was 90.0%. It was found that average scores that midwives get from STSS total and all subdimensions varied statistically significantly between the units they work at (p<0.05) and this variance was caused by midwives working at Covid service and other services. It was determined that average score obtained from STSS total, “avoidance” and “stimulation” subdimensions was statistically significantly lower in midwives who were diagnosed with Covid-19 (p<0.05). In addition, it was determined that average score obtained from STSS total, “emotional violation” and “stimulation” subdimensions was statistically significantly higher in midwives whose close colleagues were diagnosed with Covid-19 (p<0.05).
Conclusion: It was determined that midwives working at Covid-19 services experience higher secondary traumatic stress than those working at other services. In addition, while secondary traumatic stress level is higher in midwives whose close colleagues were diagnosed with Covid-19, it was determined that secondary traumatic stress level is lower in midwives who are diagnosed with Covid-19 than those who are not diagnosed.

CITATION

Yilmaz AN, Altiparmak S, Aksoy Derya Y. The impact of working unit and being diagnosed with COVID-19 on secondary traumatic stress level in midwives: A cross-sectional and comparative study. J CLIN MED KAZ. 2021;18(4):46-51. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/11040

REFERENCES

  • Boyraz G, Legros DN, Tigershtrom A. COVID-19 and traumatic stress: The role of perceived vulnerability, COVID-19-related worries, and social isolation. J Anxiety Disord. 2020;76:102307. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102307
  • Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, Woodland L, Wessely S, Greenberg N, Rubin GJ. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet. 2020;395(10227):912-920. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8
  • Favrod C, Jan du Chêne L, Martin Soelch C, Garthus-Niegel S, Tolsa JF, Legault F, et al. Mental Health Symptoms and Work-Related Stressors in Hospital Midwives and NICU Nurses: A Mixed Methods Study. Front Psychiatry. 2018;9:364. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00364
  • Donmez A, Canbulut N, Karacam Z. Clinical features and experiences of a midwife with COVID-19: a case study. Journal of Education and Research in Nursing 2020;17(4):349-53.
  • Beck CT, LoGiudice J, Gable RK. A mixed-methods study of secondary traumatic stress in certified nurse-midwives: shaken belief in the birth process. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2015;60(1):16-23. doi:10.1111/jmwh.12221
  • Leinweber J, Rowe HJ. The costs of 'being with the woman': secondary traumatic stress in midwifery. Midwifery. 2010;26(1):76-87. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2008.04.003
  • Rice H, Warland J. Bearing witness: midwives experiences of witnessing traumatic birth. Midwifery. 2013;29(9):1056-1063. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2012.12.003
  • Bayri Bingol F, Demirgoz Bal M, Aygun M, Bilgic E. Secondary traumatic stress among midwifery students Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2020;10.1111/ppc.12674. doi:10.1111/ppc.12674
  • Bick D. COVID-19: 2020 is the International Year of the Midwife. Midwifery. 2020;85:102719. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2020.102719
  • Shoja E, Aghamohammadi V, Bazyar H, Moghaddam HR, Nasiri K, Dashti M, et al. Covid-19 effects on the workload of Iranian healthcare workers. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1636. Published 2020 Nov 2. doi:10.1186/s12889-020-09743-w
  • Aksoy Derya Y, Altiparmak S, Akca E, Gokbulut, N, Yilmaz, AN. Pregnancy and birth planning during COVID-19: The effects of tele-education offered to pregnant women on prenatal distress and pregnancy-related anxiety. Midwifery. 2021; 92: 102877.
  • Dogan Yuksekol O, Orhan I, Yilmaz AN. Midwifery and nursing students ınformation on the Covid-19 pandemic and the precautions they take for protection. ACU Journal of Health Sciences 2021;12(2): 487-495 https://doi.org/10.31067/acusaglik.851937
  • Bride BE, Robinson MM, Yegidis B, Figley CR. Development and validation of the secondary traumatic stress scale. Research on Social Work Practice. 2004;14(1):27-35. doi:10.1177/1049731503254106
  • Yildirim G, Kidak LB, Yurdabakan I. Secondary traumatic stress scale: an adaptation study. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 2018;19(1), 45-51.
  • Izmir Medical Chamber. Health Workers Diagnosed with Covid-19 in Izmir. Available from: http://www.izmirtabip.net/uncategorized/izmirde-covid-19- tanili-saglik-calisanlari/
  • Gürkan A, Yalçıner N. Secondary traumatıc stress in health workers. GÜSBD 2017; 6(2):90-95.
  • Oe M, Ishida T, Favrod C, Martin-Soelch C, Horsch A. Burnout, Psychological Symptoms, and Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Midwives Working on Perinatal Wards: A Cross-Cultural Study Between Japan and Switzerland. Front Psychiatry. 2018;9:387. Published 2018 Sep 4. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00387
  • Kidak LB, Yildirim G, Yurdabakan I. Examination of factors affecting to secondary traumatic stress, cynicism and burnout in healthcare professionals. TJFMPC, 2019;13 (2),196-202.
  • Secosan I, Virga D, Crainiceanu ZP, Bratu T. The Mediating Role of Insomnia and Exhaustion in the Relationship between Secondary Traumatic Stress and Mental Health Complaints among Frontline Medical Staff during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Behav Sci (Basel). 2020;10(11):164. Published 2020 Oct 26. doi:10.3390/bs10110164
  • Orrù G, Marzetti F, Conversano C, Vagheggini G, Miccoli M, Ciacchini R, et al. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout in Healthcare Workers during COVID-19 Outbreak. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(1):337. Published 2021 Jan 5. doi:10.3390/ijerph18010337
  • Arpacioglu S, Gurler M, Cakiroglu S. Secondary Traumatization Outcomes and Associated Factors Among the Health Care Workers Exposed to the COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 8]. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2020;20764020940742. doi:10.1177/0020764020940742
  • Baum N. Secondary Traumatization in Mental Health Professionals: A Systematic Review of Gender Findings. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2016;17(2):221-235. doi:10.1177/1524838015584357
  • Shevlin M, McBride O, Murphy J, Miller JG, Hartman TK, Levita L, et al. Anxiety, depression, traumatic stress and COVID-19-related anxiety in the UK general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. BJPsych Open. 2020;6(6):e125. Published 2020 Oct 19. doi:10.1192/bjo.2020.109
  • Aykut S, Soner Aykut S. The ımportance of social work on the basis of post-traumatic stress disorder and the Covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Social Politics, 2020;1(1):56-66
  • Ozturk G. Determination of secondary traumatic stress level according to the unit of health personnel. Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Health and Biomedical Sciences (Interdisciplinary), Master Thesis, Burdur, 2019.
  • Mangoulia P, Koukia E, Alevizopoulos G, Fildissis G, Katostaras T. Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Psychiatric Nurses in Greece. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2015;29(5):333-338. doi:10.1016/j.apnu.2015.06.001
  • Kerkman T, Dijksman LM, Baas MAM, Evers R, van Pampus MG, Stramrood CAI. Traumatic Experiences and the Midwifery Profession: A Cross-Sectional Study Among Dutch Midwives. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2019;64(4):435-442. doi:10.1111/jmwh.12946
  • Kahil A, Palabıyıkoğlu NR. Secondary traumatic stress. Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2018;10(1):59-70 doi:10.18863/pgy.336495