Trends of violence against health care workers and facilities: understanding the unheard

Sonia Mukhtar 1, Waleed Rana 2 * , Shamim Mukhtar 3
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1 Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
2 Hainan Medical University, Hainan General Hospital, Haikou, China
3 College of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
* Corresponding Author
J CLIN MED KAZ, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp. 86-92.
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Author Contributions
Conceptualization, S. M.; methodology, S. M.; validation, S. M.; formal analysis, W. R.; investigation, S. M.; resources, Sh. M., and W. R.; data curation, S. M., and W. R.; writing – original draft preparation, S. M.; writing – review and editing, Sh. M., and W. R.; visualization, Sh. M.; supervision – not applicable; project administration – not applicable; funding acquisition – not applicable. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This paper evaluated trends of violence against healthcare workers and healthcare facilities. It further assessed risk factors, perpetuating, precipitating, and predicting factors. This paper presented a framework on how to address, minimize and control the violence against healthcare workers and facilities in an effective way. It further presented a framework for policy developers and decision makers to ensure the safety and protection of the healthcare profession.


Mukhtar S, Rana W, Mukhtar S. Trends of violence against health care workers and facilities: understanding the unheard. J CLIN MED KAZ. 2024;21(1):86-92.


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