Measles at the present stage

Aygerim Zhuzzhasarova 1 2 * , Dinagul Bayesheva 1 2, Alena Altynbekova 1 2, Bayan Turdalina 1 2, Aliya Seidullayeva 1 2, Aitolkyn Mynzhanova 1 2, Almagul Kushugulova 3
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1 Astana Medical University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
2 Multidisciplinary city Hospital No3, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
3 Center of Life Sciences, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
* Corresponding Author
J CLIN MED KAZ, Volume 18, Issue 6, pp. 25-31. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/11392
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ABSTRACT

Measles is an acute infectious disease characterized by a combination of catarrhal symptoms and specific exanthema. This is a highly contagious, potentially fatal infection with an airborne transmission mechanism. A distinctive feature of the pathogen of which is the ability to cause prolonged post-infectious immunosuppression. Fever in combination with one of the following manifestations: cough, runny nose, conjunctivitis are the first clinical manifestations of the disease. The Belsky-Filatov-Koplik spots are specific rashes on the mucous membrane of the cheeks, allowing to establish a diagnosis even before the appearance of exanthema. The rash usually appears 3-4 days after the onset of an increase in body temperature and is characterized by a gradual rash, initially occurs on the face and behind the ears, which is associated with the peak of the clinical picture. Measles is characterized by a polysystemic lesion, with a predominant involvement in the pathological process of the central and respiratory systems of the body, while pneumonia is one of the most frequent complications that lead to a fatal outcome. In the treatment of measles, supportive therapy, correction of dehydration and nutrient deficiency, as well as treatment of secondary bacterial infections and providing the body with vitamin A are of great importance. It is important to note that measles has lifelong immunity after an infection or vaccination, while vaccination against measles plays a crucial role in its elimination. Previously, it was believed that measles is on the verge of eradication, but its outbreaks in Europe at the present stage have led to the return and spread of this infection. Measles remains the leading cause of global child mortality in the world, as children from developing countries are most susceptible to this disease. About 45 million new cases of measles are registered annually in the world, among which almost a million people die.

CITATION

Zhuzzhasarova A, Bayesheva D, Altynbekova A, Turdalina B, Seidullayeva A, Mynzhanova A, et al. Measles at the present stage. J CLIN MED KAZ. 2021;18(6):25-31. https://doi.org/10.23950/jcmk/11392

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