The experiences in the self-management of gestational diabetes: A qualitative study based on pender’s health promotion model

Nuran Nur Aypar Akbağ 1 * , Merlinda Aluş Tokat 2
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1 Midwifery Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sinop University, Sinop, Turkey
2 Obstetric and Gynecologic Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Dokuz Eylul University, İzmir, Turkey
* Corresponding Author
J CLIN MED KAZ, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp. 22-30.
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Aim: Cultural differences, facilitators or barriers affect lifestyle changes in women with GDM. This descriptive qualitative study examined experiences in self-management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) through Pender’s Health Promotion Model (HPM) of the nursing theories that develop cultural care models.
Material and methods: The qualitative descriptive research was designed based on a deductive qualitative content analysis, within the framework of the Health Promotion Model. A total of 23 women, who were diagnosed with GDM, participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed a deductive qualitative directed content analysis.
Results: Three themes that reflected “Behavior-specific cognitions and affect” component of HPM were obtained: perceptual changes, emotional changes, and changes in the support system. Sub-themes such as believing in the benefit of implementation and succeeding, monitoring the implementation, positive support were determined as the facilitating sub-themes. The difficulty of implementations, serious dimension in treatment, believing in failing, fear, stress, sadness, confusion and negative support were identified as barriers in GDM self-management.
Conclusion: This study highlighted on the value of the intervention based on Pender’s Model shall guide healthcare professionals in improving and to perform individualized GDM self-management. Also, the educational based on nursing models can increase self-efficacy and motivation in women.


Aypar Akbağ NN, Aluş Tokat M. The experiences in the self-management of gestational diabetes: A qualitative study based on pender’s health promotion model. J CLIN MED KAZ. 2023;20(5):22-30.


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